Zone II • Versions EN1
China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, the 3,000-kilometer-long Corridor starts from China’s Kashgar and ends at Pakistan’s Gwadar, and connects the Silk Road Economic Belt in the north and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road in the south. It serves as a critical north-south hub of the Silk Road, passing throughout Pakistan, Kashgar and its surrounding regions of China.
As an important pilot project of the Belt and Road Initiative and a new trade network of the inland areas of Western China, China-Pakistan Economic Corridor includes highways, railways, pipelines and optical cables, benefiting about 200,000,000 people. The construction of the Corridor can not only expand new channels for marine transportation, and ensure energy security, but also connect China with the resourceful Middle East. It is of immeasurable strategic and political value to promoting regional economic and trade cooperation, driving economic development, further maintaining the stability in Western China and increasing China’s geopolitical influence (Figure 1).
Located between 23°47′N – 41°55′N and 60°20′E – 80°16′E with an area of approximately 1.32×106 km2, China-Pakistan Economic Corridor crosses the intersection of the Kalakoram-Kunlun Mountains, the Himalayas and the Hindu Kush Mountains, as well as the joint part of the Pamir Plateau and the Indus-Ganghe Plain, chracterized by complex topography and landform, active geological structure, clear vertical zones and changeable climate. The terrain here is high in the north and low in the south. As the result of the special natural environment and changing climatic conditions, the natural disasters in the area along the Corridor are characteristic of numerous varieties, large scale, high frequency and wide distribution, which poses a huge threat to engineering construction and operation, and restricts the infrastructure construction, resource development as well as social and economic development along the Corridor. Meanwhile, due to the special geographical environment and the relatively underdeveloped social and economic development, the ground observation system and data in this area are relatively scarce, and it is difficult to meet the demand for objective, comprehensive and scientific information in large-scale engineering construction. Under this background, it is imperative to study, monitor, prevent and control the brewing, occurrence and development of these disasters, explore the mechanism of disaster formation, and implement in-depth research on data indices and information mining related to natural disasters in China-Pakistan Economic Corridor. Thus, this can meet the need of the important information about the economic corridor construction and regional people’s livelihood development, ensure the smooth construction and safety of China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, deal with the safety hazards caused by natural disasters to major projects and serve the national scientific decision-making and demand.
In order to respond to and serve the construction of China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, scientifically support the projects as well as disaster prevention and control along the Corridor, and further comprehensively serve the project construction in various fields, such as infrastructure, energy resources, agricultural water conservancy, information and communication, etc., orientated to the strategic positioning and actual the data need for the construction of China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, Scientific Big Data Center, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences carried out research on the awareness of natural disasters in China-Pakistan Economic Corridor in 2016, and implemented a scientific investigation and scientific data collection, sorting, preparation and online production of current data with the theme of “Understanding Natural Disaster Characteristics and Laws, Improving Forecasting and Early Warning Capabilities”, with the support of the “Special Environmental and Special Function Observation and Research Station Sharing Service Platform” of National Science and Technology Basic Conditions Platform, as well as the “Construction and Application of the Science and Technology Clouds in the Study of Environmental Evolution in the Cold and Arid Regions” of Chinese Academy of Sciences. Over the years, the team has focused on “data-driven, knowledge discovery and information services” to form data-based “intelligent sense, intelligent cognition, intelligent foresight, and intelligent decision-making”; targeting different time and space data sources, it has implemented the preparation and analysis of key environmental hazard factors in China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, focusing on data collection, on-site investigation, remote sensing interpretation, data inversion, comprehensive analysis, and simulation prediction. We have compiled and completed the following datasets: A high-resolution DOM dataset of China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (Kashgar to Islamabad), A dataset of glacier and glacial lake distribution in key areas of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor during 2013 – 2017, A dataset of permafrost distribution along the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor in 2017, A dataset of land cover in northwest China from 1990 to 2010, A dataset of surface deformation along the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor from 2014 to 2018, Data of stone-slide investigation and susceptibility distribution in Gaizi Valley, A dataset of high-resolution land surface temperature inversion for the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (2013 – 2018), A dataset of desertification distributions along the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor 2000 – 2017, A dataset of monthly temperature vegetation dryness index along the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor from 2000 – 2017, A dataset of drought indices based on the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) over Xinjiang, China (1961 – 2015), A dataset for the extreme temperature-rising process over eastern Pamirs Plateau in northern China–Pakistan economic corridor (1961 – 2017), A dataset of organic carbon storage and carbon dynamic in arid and semiarid China from 1980 to 2014, Dynamic spatial datasets of ecosystem carbon stocks in arid regions of western China under climate change, 1980 – 2014, DOM and DEM dataset of the Drôme River remotely sensed with a UAV (2005 – 2009).
This data collection consists of the above 14 scientific data articles, involving surface temperature, permafrost distribution, drought, desertification, glaciers, glacial lakes, stone-sliding slopes, surface deformation, temperature rise and other environmental indices of natural disasters. It provides basic data for a comprehensive understanding of the natural environment of China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, full assessment of disaster risks, and active response to climate change. In terms of the data preparation, we carried out survey analysis, thematic mapping, and comprehensive evaluation for each research object. In the assessment and analysis of disasters, we comprehensively explored regional natural environment changes, disaster-related events, disaster spatial distribution and correlation characteristics, and basically formed the resource system of data, methods and information for typical natural disaster research, covering typical areas of China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, which has been recognized by professionals and experts in the field. When it comes to data technology, we have formed a standardized data preparation process for each article, so as to form an online dynamic monitoring mechanism, perform the multi-dimensional comparison and verification of data quality, and finally ensure the accuracy of the data.
This data collection is of important research significance and engineering application value for exploring the temporal and spatial evolution characteristics and laws of the natural environment along China-Pakistan Economic Corridor from multi-source data, and deepening the scientific understanding of the sustainable development of ecological environment in the background of climate change. It can provide reference for multi-dimensional identification of environmental changes, discriminating disaster risks, and offer the support of basic observation data for scientific construction as well as risk prevention and control. The data entities corresponding to this data collection also enrich the Geoscience spatio-temporal database of China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, which can be used directly as the basic data for the comprehensive study of the ecological environment of the Corridor, propping up the layout and construction of the infrastructure and major projects, natural disaster monitoring and assessment, and ecological security evaluation. We expect that the methods and corresponding data in this collection could provide scientific support and guarantee for the scientific tasks, such as the study on the development mechanism of natural disasters, risk assessment and engineering prevention in China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, better serve the project construction, and lay a solid foundation for disaster reduction and sustainable development of the ecological environment.