Abstract: On the basis of Coloured Atlas of Sichuan Reptiles and The Colour Handbook of the amphibians of Sichuan, we built the distributional list of amphibians and reptiles of Sichuan Province. The list was then verified by reference to the classification system as prescribed in Colored Atlas of Chinese Amphibians and Their Distributions (2012) and A Revised Taxonomy for Chinese Reptiles (2015). To summarize: according to the present enumeration, 107 amphibian species are accredited to Sichuan, including 80 endemic species and 1 exotic species, spanning 2 orders, 12 families, and 37 genera; 107 reptile species are accredited, including 42 endemic species and 1 exotic species, spanning 2 orders, 15 families, and 47 genera. This article and its described data can be used for understanding the changes and distributions of herpetological species in Sichuan Province, supporting the conservation of herpetological resources.
Keywords: Sichuan Province; amphibian; reptile; endemic species; exotic species; invasive species
|Title||The distributional list of amphibians and reptiles in Sichuan Province, China|
|Data corresponding author||Cai Bo, Lü Ke, Chen Yueying, Li Jiatang, Wang Yuezhao, Gu Haijun, Gu Xiaodong|
|Data authors||Gu Haijun (email@example.com)|
Gu Xiaodong (firstname.lastname@example.org)
|Time range||As of October 31, 2017|
|Geographical scope||Geographical scope:97°21’E–108°31’E, 26°03’N – 34°19’N. Specific areas include the whole Sichuan Province.|
|Data service system||http://www.sciencedb.cn/dataSet/handle/524|
|Sources of funding||Special Fund for Youth Scholars on Taxonomy, the Chinese Academy of Sciences(ZSBR-014)|
National Natural Science Foundation of China(NSFC-31071892)
|Dataset composition||According to the present enumeration, 107 amphibian species are accredited to Sichuan, including 80 endemic species and 1 exotic species, spanning 2 orders, 12 families, and 37 genera; 107 reptile species are accredited, including 42 endemic species and 1 exotic species, spanning 2 orders, 15 families, and 47 genera.|
Sichuan Province, which is located in the upper Yangtze River, has 1075 km long from east to the west and 921 km width from north to the south, lies between latitudes 26°03′ to 34°19′N, and longitudes 97°21′ to 108°31′E . Sichuan’s main landform can separate into two parts: The west part is Eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau; The east part is Sichuan Basin. Sichuan has amazing variety of landforms: plateaus, mountains, hills, basins, plains and so on. The terrain is undulating, it is the transitional area between the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the plain of the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River. Crisscrossed by Eastern monsoon region and Tibetan Plateau cold Region, including humid northern subtropical and subtropical regions, as well as mountainous zones cut by the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, spanning 8 landscape areas. These amazing variety of environments support many kinds of amphibians and reptiles in Sichuan.
The recording of amphibians and reptiles in Sichuan can be discretely found in ancient books, which can be dated back to Tang Dynasty. In modern times, the investigation of herpetology in Sichuan was started at 1868, when French missionary David made a large collection of amphibians and reptiles. The earlier literature which wholly recording amphibians list of Sichuan is Study of some Amphibians from Szechuan (1932), written by Mangven L. Y. Chang and H. F. Hsü, recorded 2 orders, 5families, 6 genera, and 14 species. And the earlier concentrated reptilian literature of Sichuan is Study of some reptiles from Szechuan (written by Mangven L. Y. Chang 1932), recorded 4 turtle species (or subspecies), 6 lizards and 17 snakes. Later, Amphibian of Western China written by Liu Chengzhao was published in 1950, which was recorded 56 amphibians of Sichuan. Sichuan Amphibian Fauna recorded Sichuan has 2 orders, 10 families, 19 genera, and 78 amphibians. In 1982, Sichuan Fauna Economica recorded 83 amphibians, and 2 orders, 11 families, 35genera and 70 reptiles in Sichuan. Three volumes of Fauna Sinica Reptilia (1998-1999) recorded 2 orders, 12families, 40 genera, and 83 reptiles are distributed in Sichuan . In 2000, the Colour Handbook of the amphibians of Sichuan described 111 amphibian species (or subspecies) live in Sichuan province (including Chongqing), spanning 2 orders, 10 families, and 31genera . Coloured Atlas of Sichuan Reptiles recorded 2 orders, 12 families, 45 genera and 104 reptiles which known in Sichuan (including Chongqing). From 2006 to 2009, the three volumes of Fauna Sinica Amphibia were publish, which described 2 orders, 10 families, 31 genera, and 100 amphibians in Sichuan province.
These years, herpetology taxonomy was proceeding rapidly. Classification of some species were changed. With the help of research funds, convenient transportation, deep investigation and more advanced research techniques, more and more species were found in Sichuan [-].
But, as the influence of human activities and changing environments, the population of amphibian and reptile declines . Even worse, with the development of society, the integration of world economy and the improvement of transport conditions, biological invasion has been happened almost everywhere, for human activities have been bringing species out of their natural areas and breaking the geographical barriers of natural distribution of species. At present, many amphibians and reptiles are introduced to China for pet-feeding or food-providing. Some of these alien species were abandoned or released to the wild land. Part of them were established a wild population. Few of them has become the invasive species. One of them, like American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), help amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) spreading widely, causing many amphibians population declines rapidly around the word . Sichuan has also been gradually invaded by invasive amphibians and reptiles .
2.1 Method of data collection
Based on The Colour Handbook of the amphibians of Sichuan, Coloured Atlas of Sichuan Reptiles, Fauna Sinica Reptilia, Fauna Sinica Amphibia, we referenced the taxonomy of Colored Atlas of Chinese Amphibians and Their Distributionsand A Revised Taxonomy for Chinese Reptiles, reviewed the reptile database of CIB-Herp and articles published in domestic and foreign. Finally, we reorganized the data of native amphibians and reptiles, and added the records of invasive species in Sichuan Province.
2.2 Method of date processing
We refer to the specimen database of the herpetology Museum of Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and the published literatures and books at home and abroad. The species of amphibians and reptiles in Sichuan province and the corresponding distribution information were summarized. The distribution information was transformed to county level administrative divisions. For distribution range covered all of the county-level administrative units, we only list the prefecture-level city.
This list includes three parts: amphibian, reptile and alien species. The order of amphibian and reptile are Class, Order, Family, Genus and Species, with the information of Chinese name, Latin name, distribution and whether it is unique to China, like: “1 Amphibia 1.1 Urodela Protohynobius Protohynobius puxiongensis Fei and Ye, 2000 Distribution: Yuexi unique”. And for some special species, like Giant salamander, which distribution is uncertain right now , the information is directly pointed out through literatures. The data of alien species includes species name, discoverable location and origin site, like “Emydidae Trachemys Trachemys scripta elegans (Wied 1838) distribution：Chengdu Plain and Surrounding Hills（such as Min River, Tuo River, Jialing River and other water systems）origin site：Southern North America”.
The list collection 2 orders,12 families, 37genera and 107 amphibian species, including 80 unique species and 1 exotic species in Sichuan province, and 2 orders,15 families, 47genera and 107 reptile species, including 42 unique species and 1 exotic species in Sichuan province. Andrias davidianus、Liangshantriton taliangensis、Hoplobatrachus chinensis are Class ii of National Key Protected Wildlife List in China. Batrachuperus londongensis、Liua sihi、Oreolalax liangbeiensis、Scutiger chintingensis、Vibrissaphora boringii、Nidirana daunchina、Rana chensinensis、Rhacophorus hungfuensis、Japalura graham、Euprepiophis perlacea、Oligodon multizonatus、Deinagkistrodon acutus are the key protected wildlife in sichuan province. The invasive species of amphibian reptile in Sichuan province are Lithobates catesbeianus and Trachemys scripta elegans.
The distribute information display: The areas in the Huaxi rain screen of Sichuan province, namely the mountainous areas on the eastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, are the areas where amphibians and reptile’s distribution are concentrated, and also the areas where amphibians and reptile’s endemic unique species distribution are concentrated.
In the process of sorting date, we follow the principles that new species and new recorded species must have definite taxonomic and identification characteristics, standard description of type specimens, clear depository of type specimens (publicly accessible library, museum), open academic journals, and clear county (or mountain or river) records.
We definition “exotic species” as introduced species that are undergoing or have experienced the settlement phase. The judgment criteria are: Before to be included in this list, the discovered or reported wild population points need to be confirmed by investigation.
The information which is not confirmed by the distribute point, is indicated by "?" after the distribution point.
This list summary amphibians and reptiles taxonomic research and the researchers continue to discover new species and new record of amphibians and reptiles in Sichuan province. It makes the amphibians distribution date of Sichuan province were updated 16 years after the publication of The Colour Handbook of the amphibians of Sichuan, and also makes the distribution date of reptiles Sichuan province were updated in 14years after the publication of Coloured Atlas of Sichuan Reptiles.
The proportion of threatened species of amphibians and reptiles in China is far higher than the global average level, and it also higher than other vertebrate groups in China. Sichuan is one of the provinces with has richest species of amphibians and reptiles in China and one of the locations with hardest task to protect amphibians and reptiles . In extremely dangerous animals, 4 amphibians distributed in Sichuan province are listed as "extremely endangered”, they are Protohynobius puxiongensis、Andrias davidianus、Oreolalax liangbeiensis and Scutiger maculatus, all of them endemic species in China. This list can facilitate the relevant personnel to better understand the changes and distribution of amphibians and reptiles species, and provide a basis for the protection of amphibians and reptiles resources in Sichuan Province.
Exotic species can reduce endemic species population, affect the entire food network and ecosystem , lead to biodiversity decreasing , frequent natural disasters, ecological imbalance, and even affecting human health. They also destroy the ecological balance, seriously affect agriculture and forestry, and cause huge economic losses . This list can provide relevant personnel with more detailed distribution of invasive amphibians and reptiles to make management countermeasures.
 FEI L, YE C Y. The Colour Handbook of the Amphibians of Sichuan[M]. Beijing:China Forestry Publishing House,2001.
 Amphibian and Reptilian Laboratory, Sichuan Institute of Biology[J]. Amphibian fauna in Sichuan. Amphibian and Reptile Research Data,1976,3.
 YE C Y, FEI L. Directory and Geographical Distribution of Amphibians in Sichuan [M]//SHI BN, ZHAO EM. Resources fauna of Sichuan [M] .Chengdu: Sichuan Science and Technology Press,1982.
 ZHAO E M, JIANG Y M, HUANG Q Y. List and Distribution of Vertebrates in Sichuan Province: Reptiles [M]// SHI BN, ZHAO EM . Resources fauna of Sichuan [M]. Chengdu: Sichuan Science and Technology Press,1982.
 ZAHNG M W, ZONG Y, MA J F. Fauna Sinica Reptile Vol.1(Pandect Tesudines Crocodiliformes）[M]. Beijing: Science Press，1998.
 ZHAO E M,JIANG Y M,HUANG Q Y, et al. Fauna Sinica Reptile (Vol.2) (Squamata:Sauria)[M]. Beijing: Science Press，1999
 ZHAO E M, HUANG M H, ZONG Y. Fauna Sinica Reptile Vol.3(Squamata: Serpentes) [M]. Beijing: Science Press，1998.
 FEI L,HU S Q,YE C Y, et al. Fauna Sinica Amphibia(Vol.1) :Gymnophiona Caudata [M]. Beijing: Science Press，2006.
 FEI L,HU S Q,YE C Y, et al. Fauna Sinica Amphibia (Vol.2) Anura[M]. Beijing: Science Press，2009.
 SHEN L M,GAO Z F,OU W F, et al. Investigation Report on Amphibians and Reptiles in Tangjiahe Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province [J]. Sichuan Journal of Zoology,1996(03):132-134
 GAO Z F,QIN A M. New Records of Reptiles in Sichuan Province: Japalura micangshanensis [J]. Sichuan Journal of Zoology,2001(01):27
 LI C. New Record of Amphibe in the Sichuan Province——Megophrys minor binchuanensis[J]. Journal of Sichuan Normal College(Natural Science), 2002(01):41-42.
 GAO Z F,HOU M. Description of a New Japalura Species from Western Sichuan Province ,China[J]. Sichuan Journal of Zoology,2002(01):3-5
 LI C,SUN Z Y. Study on the Amphibians in Caqingsongduo Nature Reserve, Sichuan [J]. Sichuan Journal of Zoology,2002(03):181-182.
 LI C, LIU S Y, RAN J H, et al. Survey on Herpetological Resources in Labahe Nature Reserve, Tianquan, Sichuan[J]. Sichuan Journal of Zoology,2003(01):31-34
 LI C, GU X D, WANG H J. Discussion on the Distribution of Python molurus in Sichuan [J]. Sichuan Journal of Zoology,2003(03):149-150.
 ZHENG Y C, LIU Z J, LI C, et al. Herpetological Survey in Sier Nature Reserve and Adjacent Area, Sichuan Province, China[J]. Sichuan Journal of Zoology,2003(03):165-167
 WANG D,SONG Z B,YUE B S, et al. A Survey of Herpetological Resources in National Dafengding Nature Reserve Meigu Co., Sichuan, China [J]. Sichuan Journal of Zoology,2004(03):238-242.
 LIU S L,YUE B S,HE X J, et al. A Preliminary Herpetological Survey in Longdishui Nature Reserve, Songpan County, Sichuan [J]. Sichuan Journal of Zoology,2005 (03): 389–392.
 LI C, GU H J , YANG H, et al. Amphibians and Reptiles in Caopo Nature Reserves and Bobso Nature Reserves, Sichuan Province, China. Sichuan Journal of Zoology,2006 (02): 305–307.
 GAO Z F. Herpetological Fauna and Zoogeographic Division of Mianyang City, Sichuan[J]. Sichuan Journal of Zoology,2006 (02): 317–319.
 SHENG X J,YUAN W J,ZHANG Y Z. Analysis on Fauna of Terrestrial Vertebrate in Sichuan Chayagou Wetland [J]. Sichuan Forestry Exploration and Design,2006 (02): 20–24, 33.
 SUN H C,WU H F,HOU Q J, et al. A Herpetological Survey in Mabian Dafengding National Nature Reserve , Sichuan [J]. Sichuan Journal of Zoology,2006 (02): 300–304.
 SUN H C,LIU S L,RAN J H, et al. Analysis on Herpetological Diversity in Butuo Le'An Nature Reserve of Sichuan [J]. Journal of Sichuan University(NaturalScience),2007 (02): 410-414.
 SUN H C. Study on Herpetological Diversity in 15 Nature Reserves of West Sichuan Region [D]. Chengdu: Sichuan University,2007
 LUO J,GAO H Y,LUO Y. Preliminary Herpetological Survey in Ziyang Region, Sichuan Province[J]. Sichuan Journal of Zoology,2007 (04): 822–826.
 YU T L,ZHU L H,NIU Z S, et al. Amphibians and Reptilesin Xuanping Hydroelectric Station in Beichuan County, SichuanProvince [J]. Sichuan Journal of Zoology, 2008 (01): 48–49, 52.
 GUO X P,YUAN X G,YANG J, et al. Herpetological Diversity of Beichuan County in Sichuan Province[J]. Sichuan Journal of Zoology,2008 (06): 1172–1174.
 LI C,GU H J ,DAI Q, et al. Impacts on Anurans in Caopohe River Impounded by a Small-Sized Dam[J]. Resources and Environment in The Yangtze Basin,2008, 17(S1): 117–121.
 GUO P,LIU S Y, et al.The Description of a New Species of Thermophis (Serpentes :Colubridae)[J]. Sichuan Journal of Zoology,2008, 27(3): 321.
 WANG N N,LIU S L,ZENG L, et al. A Herpetological Survey in Yibicuo Swamp-Wetland Nature Reserve,Sichuan [J]. Journal of Sichuan University(Natural Science),2009, 46(06): 1867–1869.
 YAO G,HU J,YANG Z S, et al. A Preliminary Survey of Amphibian and Reptile Resources in Maanshan Nature Reserve in Ganluo, Sichuan[J]. Sichuan Journal of Zoology,2009, 28(05): 760–763.
 XIE W,FAN H,CHEN J H, et al. A Study of the Diversity of Amphibians and Reptiles in Ganzi and Liangshan Prefectures in Western Sichuan[J]. Journal of Sichuan Forestry Science and Technology,2009, 30(03): 64–69.
 WANG M H. Found the Key Wildlife Protected at the Provincial Level in Fengtongzhai Nature Reserve Elapheperlacea [J]. Ya'an Daily,2010-07-15(006).
 PAN S, DANG N, WANG J, et al. Molecular Phylogeny Supports the Validity of Polypedates impresus Yang 2008[J]. Asian Herpetological Research, 2013, 4(2): 124–133.
 WANG Z M. Successful Rescue of Ophiophagus hannah in Liangshan Prefecture [J].Communication on Wildlife Conservation in Sichuan Province,2013, 46(5): 6.
 ZHANG J, JIANG K, VOGEL G, et al. A New Species of the Genus Lycodon (Squamata, Colubridae) from Sichuan Province, China[J]. Zootaxa, 2011 (2982): 59–68.
LIU H.On Influence of Hydropower Planning on Amphibians and Reptiles in Ningnan County of Sichuan Jule River and its and Countermeasures[J]. Journal of Mianyang Normal University,2012, 31(08): 105–109, 116.
 MA K,WANG L J,YANG B, et al. Discovery of Pseudoxenodon karlschmidti at Wolong Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province, China [J]. Journal of Beijing normal university(NaturalScience),2014, 50(06): 620-621.
 ZHANG C H,YUAN S Q,XIA Y, et al. Species Delimitation of Amolops kangtingensis [J]. Sichuan Journal of Zoology,2015, 34(06): 801–809.
 DING L,GAN S X,SHI J S, et al. A Supplementary Description of Euprepiophis perlacea (Stejneger, 1929) by Means of a New Distribution Record in Shaanxi Province[J]. Journal of Sichuan Forestry Science and Technology，2017, 38(02): 36–39.
 FEI L, YE C, WANG Y, et al. A New Species of the Genus Amolops (Anura: Ranidae) from High-Altitude Sichuan, Southwestern China, with a Discussion on the Taxonomic Status of Amolops kangtingensis [J]. Zoological Research, 2017, 38(3): 138.
 HUANG Y, HU J, WANG B, et al. Integrative Taxonomy Helps to Reveal the Mask of the Genus Gynandropaa (Amphibia: Anura: Dicroglossidae)[J]. Integrative Zoology, 2016, 11: 134–150.
 SUO L,WU Y Y,SHI J S, et al. First Record of Gloydius cognatus in Sichuan Province[J]. Chinese Journal of Zoology, 2017, 52(04): 675–679.
 CAI B.LI J J,CHENG Y Y, et al. Exploring the Status and Causes of China's Threatened Reptiles Through The Red List Assessment [J]. Biodiversity Science,2016, 24: 578–587.
 JIANG J P,XIE F,ZANG C X, et al. Assessing the Threat Status of Amphibians in China[J]. Biodiversity Science,2016, 24(05): 588–597.
 LI Y, COHEN J, ROHR J. Review and Synthesis of the Effects of Climate Change on Amphibians[J]. Integrative Zoology, 2013, 8: 145–161.
 BERGER L, SPEARE R, DASZAK P, et al. Chytridiomycosis Causes Amphibian Mortality Associated with Population Declines in the Rain Forests of Australia and Central America[J]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 1998, 95: 9031–9036.
 MARTEL A, BLOOI M, ADRIAENSEN C, et al. Recent Introduction of a Chytrid Fungus Endangers Western Palearctic Salamanders[J]. Science, 2014, 346: 630–631.
 LIU X, GUO Y, LUO Y, et al. Emergent Vegetation Coverage and Human Activities Influence Oviposition Microhabitat Selection by Invasive Bullfrogs (Lithobatescatesbeianus ) in Southwestern China[J]. Journal of Herpetology, 2016, 50: 57–62.
 LI C,XIE F. Invasion of Bullfrog (Rana Catesbeiana Show) in China and Its Management Strategies[J]. Chinese Journal of Applied & Environmental Biology, 2004, 10(1) : 95–98.
 FEI L,YE C Y,JIANG J P. Colored Atlas of Chinese Amphibians and Their Distributions [M]. Chengdu: Sichuan Science and Technology Press,2012
 CAI B,WANG Y Z,CHEN Y Y, et al. A Revised Taxonomy for Chinese Reptiles [J]. Biodiversity Science,2015, 23(3): 365–382.
 WANG J. Current Status of Japanese Giant Salamander and the Enlightenment on the Conservation of Chinese Giant Salamander [J]. Chinese Journal of Applied & Environmental Biology,2015, 21(04): 683–688.
 YIN M G,CAO Y,LI C.Current Status and Protection Countermeasures for Chinese Giant Salamander Andrias davidianus [J]. Guizhou agricultural sciences,2014, 42(11): 197–202.
 COURCHAMP F. Alien Species: Monster Fern Makes IUCN Invader List. Nature, 2013, 498(7452): 37–37.
 JIANG Z G,JIANG J P,WANG Y Z, et al. Red List of China's Vertebrates [J]. Biodiversity Science,2016, 24: 500–55.
 KATS L B, FERRER R P. Alien Predators and Amphibian Declines: review of Two Decades of Science and the Transition to Conservation[J]. Diversity and Distributions, 2003, 9: 99–110.
1. Cai B, Lü K, Chen Y, Li J, Wang Y, Gu H & Gu X. The distributional list of amphibians and reptiles in Sichuan Province, China. Science Data Bank, DOI: 10.11922/sciencedb.524 (2018).
How to cite this article
Cai B, Lü K, Chen Y, Li J, Wang Y, Gu H & Gu X. The distributional list of amphibians and reptiles in Sichuan Province, China. China Scientific Data 3(2018). DOI: 10.11922/csdata.2017.20.zh